National Primary Health Care Development Agency
Do you know Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that is spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito?
Mosquitoes become infected with the virus when they bite an infected human or monkey.
The disease cannot be spread by contact from one person to another.
Increased contact between humans & infected mosquitoes could cause epidemics/outbreaks. Early symptoms include fever, chills, severe headache, back pain, general body aches, nausea & vomiting, fatigue & weakness.
Most people recover after these initial symptoms within 3-4 days. However as the disease continues, about 15% progress to severe cases. Symptoms of severe cases include high fever, jaundice, bleeding & eventually shock & failure of organs.
Vaccination remains the most effective way of preventing yellow fever. Yellow fever is a completely vaccine-preventable disease and a single shot of the yellow fever vaccine protects for a lifetime.


To some persons,the year is still very much young but let me shock you that in about *53weeks* 2021 comes in while we bid 2020 a good bye.
So,In respect to the analogy made above,it’s good to analyze some steps or decisions prior to venturing into prospects of yours,and in line with Hab2v2,your goals for the year should be explicitly penned down in black and white,also placed in a strategic area for a constant/frequent reminder but remember *God-factor* is *KEY* in achieving such *good/Godly* goals of yours be it *academically,financially,maritally, socially,mental
ly and all other necessary llies*.
Meanwhile,having put all these into consideration, there comes this fear of the unknown, fear to take steps you have never taken thereby resorting to sessions of analysis upon analysis which by extension paralyze your goals/dreams for the year when in actual fact,what you need do is *take a bold step* *make that decision that would not only turn your life around but also people around you.*
In conclusion,in a bid to help yourself in achieving your goals for the year,please stop the use of *months* rather the use of *weeks* that there’s no time to waste!
Remember the time to make life-changing decisions is NOW!

Photo Credit: donisaac_studios



Herpetic Whitlow

*What is herpetic whitlow*
Herpes whitlow is an infection caused by Herpes simplex virus also known as “cold sore virus”, on the skin near the nail of the thumb or the index finger. The infected finger is known as whitlow finger and an abscess at the end of the finger can be seen.
Here are some features of herpes whitlow:
An intensely painful infection of hands involving fingers mainly terminal phalanx.
Herpes whitlow is more prominent than HSV-2, and approximately 60% of cases suffered from it.
Its symptoms are sometimes referred to as “periungual lesions” or lesions around ungual (nail) area.
The virus responsible for herpes gets in through mucous membranes i.e. the moist skin inside the mouth and genital areas.
The virus can be spread by broken skin or lesions on to the fingers, hands, and knees when comes in direct contact with an infected person.
A finger sore is also called herpetic whitlow.
Since herpetic whitlow is caused by the same virus responsible for cold sores and genital herpes, it is extremely contagious. For that reason, it’s important that you recognize symptoms of this condition and take steps to protect yourself
*Causes of herpetic whitlow*
You can only develop this condition if your finger comes in contact with type 1 or type 2 HSV. Some people who get herpetic whitlow have a history of cold sores or genital herpes, but this isn’t always the case.
If you’ve been diagnosed with HSV, herpetic whitlow may occur as a secondary infection. This can happen if you have an open cut or sore on a finger that comes in contact with sores or blisters around your face or genital area. The virus can enter your finger through this cut. If you don’t have a history of HSV, herpetic whitlow may develop if you come in contact with herpes sores or blisters on an infected person.
Herpetic whitlow is often associated with oral herpes and often caused by HSV-1 and also called as “cold sores” or “fever blisters”
In rare cases, herpetic whitlow can be caused by HSV-2, the virus responsible for genital herpes.
Broken skin such as cuts, sores, a torn cuticle or lesions is most common cause to spread the infection.
In rare cases, HSV-2 can be passed from mother to child during childbirth, if the pregnant mother developed the lesions shortly before giving the birth.
*How is herpetic whitlow transmitted?*
Herpetic whitlow is a transmittable disease and is transmitted by direct contact only. Its transmission is occurred by means of mouth to mouth (mainly by saliva) and ulcerations. It can also be spread even when they are not visible.
The mucous membranes and the moist areas are the most prone areas of the infections. It cannot transmit by indirect contact such as doorknobs or by your petted dog. One should cover it with a bandage until it heals completely, as per physician’s advice. Direct contact is always required for transmission of this virus.
If the infection is left open in the air, even then there are least chances of transmission of this disease. Open and wet lesions are highly contagious. If a person has oral herpes then there are minimal chances of contracting herpes genitalia at the same time. People suffering from immunodeficiency disorders such as AIDS are more vulnerable to herpetic whitlow and the symptoms are more difficult to overcome.
The transmission of this virus is minimal from a pregnant mother to her baby at the time of delivery. Herpes whitlow infection is also common among medical professionals and the risk of catching the herpes virus can be reduced by wearing gloves while examining and treating patients.
Is herpes incurable?
Yes, herpes is incurable. It is a worldwide epidemic. There is no cure for HSV-1. However, medications such as acyclovir (antiviral) are prescribed to reduce the potency of the virus inside the patient’s body.
Herpes is transmitted sexually and lasts for a lifetime. The most affected ones are women as per a survey because the transmission from a man to woman is easier than from woman to man
*What are signs and symptoms of herpetic whitlow*
The first warning signs of herpes are tingles, burning sensations, aches, and stabbing pains. Symptoms of herpes infection do not result immediately after the attack of the virus. The virus remains in the incubation in the affected area – growing there but remain undetectable. It may remain undetectable for about two to twenty days.
Initial symptoms of herpetic whitlow may include:
a tingling feeling in the affected area
pain and swelling of a finger
fever and discomfort (in some cases)
These symptoms are usually followed by:
sudden pain around the nail
redness (erythema), swelling and warmth around the nail
the development of small, barely visible blisters around the nail
swelling of the lymph glands in nearby areas such as the elbow and armpit (in some cases)
Over the next 7-10 days, the typical symptoms are:
swelling, heat, and a burning sensation in the affected digit
The development of visible, blister-like grouped sacs of opaque fluid called vesicles around the nail and on the tip of the finger
*Difference between herpetic whitlow, paronychia, and cellulitis*
Following clinical features can be used for herpetic whitlow, paronychia, and cellulitis differentiation:
Herpetic whitlow is an infection of thumb or finger mainly index finger. Paronychia is an infection of a nail or nail bed.
Cellulitis is the infection of a deeper layer of the skin.
Herpetic whitlow is caused by a virus named Herpes simplex. Paronychia and cellulitis are caused by bacteria.
Herpetic whitlow infection is localized on the finger. Paronychia infection is localized nail or nail bed. Cellulitis infection can spread through the body very quickly.
One can observe clear to yellow lesions with an erythematous base on the fingers or hands in the case of herpetic whitlow.
One can observe opaque, purulent fluid along the nail bed, and often surrounded by erythema in the case of paronychia.
Cellulitis causes an area of skin (mainly affect lower leg) to suddenly become red, hot, swollen, painful, and tender.
Direct transmission from saliva to the hand causes whitlow, patients usually shed virus those are present with whitlow in the case of herpetic whitlow. The bacteria that cause paronychia and cellulitis often live harmlessly on the skin, but they can lead to an infection if they get into a break in your skin.
Herpetic whitlow is treated with antiviral drugs. Along with the antibiotics, the incision and drainage are necessary due to increased pressure of the paronychia. The main treatment of cellulitis is antibiotics.
*Diagnose herpetic whitlow*
The appearance of a sore or blister on your finger isn’t usually a cause for concern. Some sores are due to friction, insect bites, or injury, and typically heal on their own. However, if you develop a painful pocket of pus, called an abscess, on your finger and can’t pinpoint a cause, see your doctor.
Doctors can usually identify viral infections based on the appearance of sores or lesions. If your doctor suspects a virus, a skin swab or blood test can confirm or rule out herpetic whitlow.
*Complications of herpetic whitlow*
Due to the contagious nature of this infection, you should keep the blistered area covered until it heals. If you don’t, the infection could spread to other parts of your body or infect other people. Wearing gloves while cleaning an infected area also prevents spreading the infection to other parts of your body. As a precaution, don’t wear contact lenses if you have herpetic whitlow. If you touch your eye with an infected finger, the virus could spread to your eye.
*How is herpetic whitlow treated*
Herpetic whitlow doesn’t require treatment. The condition usually heals within a few weeks without medication, but a prescription antiviral drug can shorten the duration of an infection. Antivirals are only effective when taken within 24 hours of developing symptoms.
Antivirals also lower the risk of spreading the infection to other people. If a blister ruptures and becomes infected with bacteria, your doctor can prescribe an antibiotic.
You can treat herpetic whitlow at home by:
taking a pain reliever — such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen — to reduce pain and fever
applying a cold compress several times a day to reduce swelling
cleaning the infected area daily and covering it with gauze.
*Natural remedies for herpetic whitlow*
Ice packs are superior to any remedy for reducing herpes pain to a maximal extent.
A soaked cotton ball with some baking soda on it is beneficial in providing relief in herpes infected area. One should use fresh cotton balls every time treating with this method.
A solution of lukewarm water and oatmeal/
cornstarch should be made and the cotton ball should be soaked in this solution. An application of this solution is useful in relieve the itching of sores.
Application of extracts:
Carrot extract is a great remedy that provides relief in swelling and pain associated with herpes lesions. In this, one should wrap grated carrots in a cloth and place them on the affected area.
Grape extract, honey, olive oil, olive leaf extract, marshmallow roots, and tea tree oil is beneficial in facilitating the process of healing of lesions and sores.
Another best home remedy is the application of teabags. Teabags possess powerful anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties that are beneficial in relieving herpes sores.
A poultice made up of a cup of hot olive oil and some lavender oil + beeswax is a great remedy to get rid of outbreaks of herpes at home. Application of this poultice after cooling provides great relief to patient suffering from herpes.
Essential Oils:
A mixture of eucalyptus oil and bergamot oil is beneficial in treating herpes sores.
Herpes can be cured by using herbal teas like peppermint tea, chamomile tea, black tea. Symptoms such as fever and pain can be reduced to a great extent with these herbal teas.
Health Tips!…….Your Health Is Our Priority!


Peptic ulcers are sores developed in the lining of the stomach,lower esophagus or small

intestine. The most prevalent symptom of a peptic ulcer is burning abdominal pain which

extends from the navel to the chest. Ulcers that are not treated can become worse over time and

result to other health conditions. More so, is as a result of inflammation caused by the bacteria

Helicobacter Pylori (it is a type of bacteria) and these germs can enter one’s body and live in

the digestive tract and after many years,they can cause sores known as ‘Ulcers’ in the stomach’s

lining or the upper part of your small intestine,for some persons,an infection could result to

stomach cancer. Infection with Helicobacter Pylori is prevalent. About the two-thirds of the

population of the world has it in their bodies. As more of the world’s population has access to

wholesome,clean water and sanitation,fewer people than before are getting infected by the

bacteria. Peptic ulcer could erupt from erosion from stomach acids. Peptic ulcer is a fairly

common health problem.
Peptic ulcer is divided into three types:
1. Gastric Ulcer: It develops inside the stomach.
2. Esophagus Ulcer: It develops inside the esophagus.
3. Duodenal Ulcer: Does develop in the upper sectionof the small intestines,called the duodenum.

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Different factors could cause the three(3) types of peptic ulcers:
1. Helicobacter Pylori:(H.Pylori):- a bacteria which is able to cause or bring about a stomach

infection coupled with inflammation.

2. Incessant use of aspirin,ibuprofen and a host of anti-inflammatory drugs (risk which is

associated with behavior does increase in women and people above age 60)

3. Smoking could be responsible for that.
4. Intake of too much alcohol (avoid it totally).
5. Radiation Therapy.
6. Stomach cancer.


The very common symptom of a peptic ulcer is burning abdominal or dull pain which extends from the navel to the chest,which can range from mild to severe. Mind you,it may come and go,but you’ll probably feel it most when your stomach is empty,such as between meals or in the dead night. In some cases, the pain may wake you up at night. In the same vein,other signs of a peptic ulcer include:

> Changes in appetite.
> Nausea .
> Bloody or dark stools (melena) etc and you may feel better after intake of milk,meal.

Home Remedies For Peptic Ulcers
There are natural home remedies you can adopt to help ease the symptoms of the

aforementioned ulcers and help their heal viz:-

a. Flavonoids: Research does suggests that flavonoids,which are also known as bioflavonoids,which are also known as bioflavonoids,maybe an effective treatment for stomach ulcers. They are compounds which occur naturally in many fruits and vegetables. Foods and drinks that are rich in flavonoids include:
1. Soya beans.
2. Red grapes.
3. Legumes.
4. Broccoli.
5 Apples.
6. Kale.
7. Berries.
8. Teas (preferably green teas).

Foods and drinks which contain flavonoids-such as citrus fruits and red wines can be irritable

to a stomach ulcer. flavonids are refered to as ‘gastroprotective’,which means they do defend the stomach’s lining and could effect healing on the ulcers. According to the Linus Pauling Institute,there are no side effects of consuming flavonoids in the amount found in a diet typically,but too much amounts of flavonoids may interfere with blood clothing. You could get it from your diet or take them as supplememts.

b. Licorice (Deglycyrrhizinated licorice);(Smiles):- Don’t be swayed by the first long word neither should you allow it make you sustain a stomach ache. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice is simply plain old licorice with the sweet flavor extracted . A study did show that deglycyrrhizinated licorice can probably help ulcers heal via inhibiting the growth of Helicobacter Pylori.

c. Probiotics: Probiotics are the living bacteria and yeast that help keep your digestive system moving. They are present in many common foods, particularly fermented foods. These include:
• buttermilk
• yogurt
• miso
• kimchi
You can also take probiotics in supplement form. Studies have shown that probiotics may be helpful in wiping out H. pylori and increasing recovery rate for people with ulcers.

d. Honey: Honey is far from simply sweet. Depending on the plant it’s derived from, honey can contain up to 200 elements, including polyphenols and other antioxidants. Honey is a powerful antibacterial and has been shown to inhibit H. pylori growth. As long as you have normal blood sugar levels, you can enjoy honey as you would any sweetener, with the bonus of soothing your ulcers.

e. Garlic: Garlic extract has been shown to inhibit H. pylori growth in lab, animal, and human trials. If you don’t like the taste (and lingering aftertaste) of garlic, you can take garlic extract

in supplemental form. Garlic acts as a blood thinner, so ask your doctor before taking it if you use warfarin ie it is an anticoagulant used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots etc (Coumadin) or other prescription blood thinners.

f. Cranberry: Cranberry is known for its ability to fight urinary tract infections by preventing bacteria from settling on the walls of the bladder. Cranberry and cranberry extract also may help fight H. pylori. You can drink cranberry juice, eat cranberries, or take cranberry supplements.No specific amount of consumption is associated with relief. Too much cranberry in any form may cause stomach discomfort whether you have ulcers or not, so start with small amounts and increase gradually. In addition, many commercial cranberry juices are heavily sweetened with sugar or high fructose corn syrup, which can also cause stomach upset and add empty calories.

Avoid those juices by buying juice sweetened only by other juices.

g. Mastic: Mastic is the sap of a tree grown in the Mediterranean. Studies of the effectiveness of mastic on ulcers are mixed, but at least one study shows that chewing mastic helps fight H.pylori. If your ulcers are not responding to other treatments, you might want to give mastic gum a try, since it doesn’t seem to be associated with any side effects. You can chew the gum or swallow mastic in supplement form.

h. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains: A diet centered on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is not just good for your overall health. According to the Mayo Clinic, a vitamin-rich diet can help your body heal your ulcer. Foods containing the antioxidant polyphenols can protect you from ulcers and help ulcers heal. Polyphenol-rich foods and seasonings include:
• dried rosemary
• Mexican oregano
• dark chocolate
• blueberries
• black olives

Foods to avoid: Some foods can make ulcers worse, while some provide a preventive and healing effect. Greasy and acidic foods are most likely to irritate your stomach,as are spicy foods.
To reduce ulcer pain, avoid:
• coffee, including decaffeinated coffee
• carbonated beverages
• chilies and hot peppers
• processed foods
• salty red meats
• deep fried foods

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